Friday, August 31, 2012

42104475 Christian Lancuba Assessment 1 Online Essay, 20%

Did the Internet kill the Video Music Star?
The onset of digital media convergence has raised a few ideas of thought on new digital media. One of these is that digital media will replace or make redundant, older forms of media, such as film, radio and in my particular case study, music videos. However by discussing the phenomenon of digital media convergence I look to uncover some of the real implications of digital convergence and its impact on music videos.
To begin this discussion I will talk about what digital convergence is and then give examples as to how it has affected music videos.
Digital Media Convergence
Digital media convergence is the overlapping and blending of how information is delivered and where. However, digital media convergence is not only limited to the change in distribution methods. From a content perspective, all digital content is digitized into products of millions of formatted ones and zeros, making the physical content all the same. Where the audience once were only able to read the news buy buying a physical copy of the paper, that had been printed via a printing press the night before, they can now read it on an Iphone or Ipad on their way to work. Digital media convergence has given the ability of consumers to obtain multiple services on a single platform or device or obtain any given service on multiple platforms or devices. (Dwyer 2010)
Dwyer (2010) suggest that higher bandwidth Internet will only see it more and more common for people to access their favorite TV shows or Internet sites no matter where they are. In the same way, where once the people had to tune into their cable TV prescription to watch broadcast selected music videos on MTV, channel V and other music stations, they can now watch them on streaming sites, such as YouTube, in the context of their own demand. This raises the important question. Did the phenomenon of digital media convergence kill the music video star?
Who Killed the Video Star?
Whilst digital media convergence in theory may not have killed the music video star, its main side effect of giving power to the user, has changed the role played.
Before digital media convergence, music videos were mainly used as advertisements for music or the artist. Music videos used to be profitable and effective because when the consumer watched a music television broadcast station, such as MTV, the nature of the station forced the viewer to watch whatever music videos they put on the video playlist. What this created was an unsolicited sales pitch of all kinds of music, genres and artists. Much like a stream of television ads, specific for music. (LAvideoFilmmaker 2012)
Due to the change in nature of viewing music videos, there is no longer the ability to make real money from music videos. This is as post digital media convergence music videos are often made by artists as vanity projects, in hope that they go viral. The reason it has less advertising power for the artist and possibly their music labels, is because if you put a music video on YouTube, it is more than likely that the audience were looking for that specific artist. As less music videos are found by accident, it is unlikely that the video will generate net growth of the fan base.
So has digital media convergence killed the video star completely? 
Whilst there is less appeal in making music videos for advertising purposes, the artistic value of the music video for entertainment purposes may still exist.
An example is the music video by Gotye that went viral, receiving 2 million hits on Youtube, in the initial stages of the video being uploaded. This was after his song had gone number one in the US. Therefore, almost in reverse, the publicity of the song generated interest for the music video, the artists in it and also for the filmmaker Natasha Pincus. (ABC 2012) 

Somebody That I Used To Know Video


Future for the Music Video Star
By looking at how the convergence of digital media has affected the mass media market, we can see that music videos still have a place in it.
Twenty years ago, most people thought that digitalisation would lead to a mass consolidation and merger of all media infrastructures into one vertically integrated monopoly. Hence creating a one-stop shop for all mediums of communication. Whilst device wise this may be happening, content wise the exact opposite can be said. Cheap, abundant processing power is promoting disintegration and specialization along the communications value chain.  (Mueller 1999)
Successful firms are moving away from end-to-end, vertical integration to focus on specialized, horizontal segments of the market. This results in abut a completely new media system that accommodates to the specificity of individual consumer needs. (Mueller 1999)

MTV Website

This has paved the way for integrated music video viewing, on sites and blogs, specific to music. For example, the MTV website hosts many music videos as well as music news and other artist information, providing the audience with an online music channel experience that is user friendly and user controlled. This is also a unique way for music that is not yet on the radar of certain audiences, to by discovered and marketed.
In conclusion, it is evident that the phenomena of digital media convergence has not necessarily killed the music star, however changed the role played in the distribution of music. Due to the power of control shifting to the user, music videos are more an artistic or entertaining extension of an artist’s music rather than a marketing tool for their music.

Reference List

-       Mueller, M 1999, Digital Convergence and its Consequences, The Public Vol.6, viewed 31 August 2012
-       Dwyer, T 2010, Media Convergence, Mcgraw Hill, Berkshire, pp: 1-23
-       ABC; Radio National 2012, Gotye's Music Video Goes Viral, Australia, viewed 31 August 2012,
-       LAvideoFilmmaker 2012, Why Music Videos are Dead, LA, viewed 31 August 2012

Media Convergence 42847818 Rob Coy

Discuss the phenomenon of digital media convergence in relation the following: Music Video Online

Media convergence is the intersection of old and new media. Henry Jenkins defines it as "the flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behavior of media audiences."[1]. Howard Rheingold believes that technological convergence can alter the "social-side effects," in that "the virtual, social and physical world are colliding, merging and coordinating."[2] In recent years, one of the most significant examples of media convergence in relation to music video online is that of the development of the Apple Corporation’s iTunes. iTunes is a media player computer program initially released on January the 9th, 2001, developed for playing, downloading, storing, and organizing digital music and video files on desktop or laptop personal computers. As a program, it has revolutionized the way society uses music, music video and film in relation to convergence.

Media convergence can be studied at a number of distinct levels including cultural, industrial, technological, or regulatory levels. The phenomenon of digital media convergence is one, which has evolved significantly over the past decade. The ways people are using media are fragmenting. At the end of the first decade of the third millennium, profits and revenue from newspaper circulation, TV audiences and advertising began a slow decline. This partially explains why traditional media has been so keen to expand into online and mobile formats.[3] In the last five to six years, we have witnessed the emergence of a huge amount of ‘on demand’ video services on the Internet, specific ‘internet TV’ channels and ‘time shifted’ versions of parts of programs from traditional broadcasters. Furthermore, broadband operators deliver IPTV services in their managed IP networks.[4] 

There are many common threads emerging across the patterns of media convergence. One is distinction – where are the edges, the ends, the distinctions between different elements, modes, activities, spaces, technological actions and human ones, in ‘new’ new media systems? As a part of this we have asked not only what makes ’2.0′ distinct from ‘what came before’ but also how it will be understood in the future. We ask this question not least because we are somewhat alarmed by visions of proliferating version control as 2.0 merges with 3.0 and 4.0 looms on the horizon. [5]
Now in accordance to what has been defined at media convergence, we must analyze the curious significance of iTunes and music video online. iTunes was introduced by Apple Inc. on January 9, 2001. It is a media player computer program, developed for playing, downloading, storing, and organizing digital music and video files on desktop or laptop personal computers and more recently, smartphones and tablets.[6]  What made iTunes significant in terms of its relationship to music videos is the introduction of video support. On May 9, 2005, video support was introduced to iTunes with the release of iTunes 4.8. Users can drag and drop video clips from the computer into the iTunes Library for cataloguing and organization. They can be viewed in a small frame in the main iTunes display, in a separate window, or full screen. Before version 7 provided separate libraries for media types, videos were only distinguished from audio in the Library by a small icon resembling a TV screen and grouped with music in the library, organized by the same musical categories. On October 12, 2005, Apple introduced iTunes 6.0, which added support for purchasing and viewing of video content from the iTunes Music Store. The iTunes Music Store initially offered a selection of thousands of Music Videos and songs.[7] As apple began to release such products as the iPod touch and the iPhone, it made it possible for customers to purchase products online with their wireless devices. This was revolutionary because of Apples gargantuan variety of content and data.
2005 saw the launch of the YouTube, which made the viewing of online video much faster and easier than its rivals such as Google Videos, Yahoo! Video, Facebook and MySpace's video functionality, which uses similar technology. Such websites had a profound effect on the viewing of music videos; some artists began to see success as a result of videos seen mostly or entirely online. One astounding example was that of teen music sensation, Justin Bieber. Bieber, a Canadian singer/songwriter was discovered in 2008 by American talent manager Scooter Braun,[8] who came across Bieber's videos on YouTube and later became his manager. Part of his uncompromising musical success has been due to his use of YouTube. Bieber currently has the websites most viewed video, exceeding 774,000 hits.[9]
He has also the largest twitter and Facebook following of any male musician, exceeding over 100 million followers worldwide.
Undoubtedly, the Apple Corporation and YouTube owe each other a certain degree of credit for the success of the other. YouTube has been responsible for the success of many artists, which would have resulted in their success on Apple’s iTunes store. Apple has also developed such products as the iPod, iPad and iPhone, which allow customers to wirelessly view YouTube on the cleverly designed app. Both are incredible examples of how modern media has converged over a variety of mediums and platforms. Media convergence is an integral part of the evolution of media in the 21st century.

[1] Jenkins, Henry, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, pg 2
[2] Rheingold, Howard (2000) Smart Mobs: the next social revolution, Perseus, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp 157–82
[3] Dwyer, T. (2010) Media Convergence, McGraw Hill, Berksire, pp 1-23
[4] Henton, A. Tadayoni, R. (2008) ‘The impact of the internet on media technology, platforms and innovation pp 57
[5] FibreCulture Journal Issue 13: After Convergence - 
[6] "Apple Introduces iTunes — World’s Best and Easiest To Use Jukebox Software" (Press release). Apple Inc.. 2001-01-09. Retrieved 2008-04-20., at Apple's September 2010 "Music", iTunes 10 was announced.
[7] A Brief History of Apple's iTunes. Wall St. Cheat Sheet (2011-06-16)
[8] Collar, Matt; Leahey, Andrew. "allmusic ((( Justin Bieber > Overview )))". Macrovision Corporation.
[9] Montgomery, James (August 3, 2010). "Jared Leto 'Blown Away' By 30 Seconds To Mars' VMA Noms". MTV (MTV Networks)

42868416 - Joel Evans

YouTube and Convergent Media:

How Convergence has evolved Music Video

Many have claimed that with the demise of MTV’s devotion to music video, music television and music videos in general have simply become extinct. However the music industry is still producing music videos, but the ways in which the content is created, distributed and consumed has evolved from a primarily televisual means into a diverse online industry. Music industry professionals and music artists have had to rethink and reinvent the ways in which they create music videos, in order to adapt to distribution online. The convergence of media technologies has been particularly instrumental in placing the tools of production into the hands of the users, giving rise to a new participatory culture in music video.

The music industry has had to adapt the ways in which it creates music videos to accommodate for the parameters of online viewing. Audiences are constantly bombarded with choices online, so a music video needs to capture the attention of a user, to make them want to click on it and watch the entire video. As argued by Meikle and Young, the strategy around the creation and distribution of media content, has been to cultivate audience “attachment and engagement” (2012, 108). The appeal of a Lo Fi approach is that these music videos offer a quirky and original experience, and it is from this category of music video that videos typically go viral through social media. Hilderbrand lists OK Go’s music video for “Here I Go Again” as third on the list of viral videos that make up the essence of a YouTube “canon” (2007, 36). The video received over 14 000 000 (YouTube, accessed 29th August 2012) views and has inspired a hoard of parodies since its debut. It is videos such as this that are a testament to the impact of technological convergence on media creation professionally. MTV and music television would never have regarded this video as being of the quality necessary for broadcasting; however Lo Fi videos are friendly to data streaming and bandwidth. Convergent media and digitalisation have nurtured the perfect means by which Lo Fi music videos could flourish in unprecedented ways, and artists such as OK Go have responded by embracing these changes.

"Here it Goes Again" by OK Go...

Moreover, in addition to creating Lo Fi videos, the industry has also adapted its creation of Hi Fi spectacle videos for online audiences. The concept of the spectacle has survived digitalisation, and the supposed death of music television. Beebe and Middleton argue that online music spectacles have exceeded the limitations of music television (2007, 3). Online distribution has lifted the restrictions of time slots, and opened up the creative scope for those creating spectacular music videos. In the tradition of Michael Jackson’s short film approach with Thriller, Katy Perry released her own spectacle music video “Last Friday Night” online.  It debuted on the website Funny or Die, Katy Perry’s social media pages and then on her own YouTube channel; KatyPerryVEVO. “Last Friday Night” was a phenomenal success on YouTube, attracting over 188 000 000 views (YouTube, accessed 29th August 2012). This video illustrates the industrial convergence of the film and music industries, and the successful results of utilising convergent media to distribute official music videos. Although “Last Friday Night” is considered a spectacle, the video is easy is replicate like Lo Fi videos, as is evidenced by the crude parody “Last Sunday Night.” Thus the concept of a spectacle has evolved within the music industry. New spectacles are aiming to converge the capacity for replication and original experiences offered by Lo Fi music videos, and offer the same glossy appearance of the traditional spectacle.

"Last Friday Night" by Katy Perry

"Last Sunday Night" A parody by Steve Dawson

Technological convergence has moulded various media technologies into single devices, which has been instrumental in the rise of participatory culture. The wide availability of media technologies in the contemporary world has led to the blurring of lines between audience and producer. According to Jenkins these two players in the media market operate under completely new sets of rules in relation to the creation of media content (2006).  Everyone with a computer, or an iPad and iPhone can interact with and respond to media. With the appropriate software and equipment fans are creating their own music videos either by filming them themselves, or by editing together a series of video clips with a particular song. Not only does this converge the role of user and producer, but it also creates a cross industry interaction between music and video content. A YouTube user Brokendoll7 uploaded a music video combining clips from the 2005 film “Pride and Prejudice" with Hoobastank’s song “The Reason”. Meikle and Young argue that such activity amongst fans has become more widely “mainstream and accepted” (2012, 108). Such activity is an ever-growing trend on YouTube, where users recognise the relevance of a film to a particular song, and repurpose both of these media to create a new experience. Other users on YouTube or other video sharing sites can then seek out these fan made videos, to satisfy their interest in either the song or the film in a new and meaningful way. Furthermore Dwyer sees participatory culture as a double sided coin, acting as both a blessing and a challenge. Dwyer argues that participatory culture gives rise to issues of copyright and lost profits through the uploading of copyrighted content (2010, 11). However most of these uploads are forms of creative expression, and as noted in the case of the “Pride and Prejudice” video all the rightful owners are acknowledged in the videos description.

Embedding Disabled on "Pride and Prejudice - The Reason"
To view see the link in references.

In conclusion convergence has not meant the downfall of music video. As Jenkins states “old media never die” (2006, 13) and this is true for music video. The media form has merely evolved in response to the changes in technology and culture introduced by convergence. Studios and professionals have had to alter the ways in which they create music videos to accommodate for the changes introduced by convergence. Participatory culture is a phenomenon brought about by the convergence of media technologies, and has significantly influenced the uprising of a fan culture in the creation, distribution and consumption of music videos.

Reference List

Unit Reader:

Dwyer, T. (2010) 'Media Convergence' McGraw Hall, Berkshire, pp1-23

Hilderbrand, L. (2007), 'Youtube: Where Cultural Memory and Copyright Converge', Film Quarterly, Vol 61, pp. 48-57

Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. p. 11, New York University Press

Recommended Reading:
Meikle, G., Young (2012), Media Convergence: Networked Digital Media in Everyday Life, Palgrave Macmillan, Great Britain

Independent Reading:
Beebe, R., Middleton, J. (2007), Medium Cool: Music Videos from Soundies to Cellphones, Duke University Press, United States of America

Real World Examples:
Brokendoll37 (2008) “Pride and Prejudice – The Reason, Fan made video on YouTube

Katy Perry (2010) "Last Friday Night", music video on Youtube

OK Go, “ Here it Goes Again” (2009), music video on
Shane Dawson (2010) “Last Sunday Night”, parody on YouTube

Digital Media Convergence Essay, Isabel Pamatmat 42852080

YouTube: The catalyst for demonstrating the revolution of digital media convergence

By Isabel Pamatmat 428520 

Since the emergence of the ‘digital revolution’, media convergence has been academically discussed and critically examined by many media scholars and sociologists (Keith 2012). Dwyer (2010) and Jenkins (2006) define media convergence as the ‘coming together of technologies for media consumption, production and distribution and how this leads to new forms and patterns of media use’ (Keith 2012). YouTube is a significant example of an online video-sharing service that demonstrates how media convergence has reconfigured the way that media practices are accomplished and how content is vastly disseminated across various media platforms (Jenkins 2006:2). Three important points will be discussed to demonstrate how media convergence has impacted the way that music video is distributed in the digital world through YouTube. First, YouTube has the widespread capacity to extend time and space when distributing media content to a mass audience (Thompson 1999). Second, YouTube has facilitated an environment where media access has made it possible for amateurs to create their own music videos (Jenkins 2006; Hilderbrand 2007; Burgess and Green 2009). Finally, media convergence has blurred the boundaries between the producer and the consumer, enabling viewers to be more interactive in the way that they approach content in a participatory culture (Thompson 1999, Jenkins 2006). These ideologies are integral aspects that need to be considered when discussing how digital media convergence has impacted the way that music video is distributed today. 

In Thompson’s account of his five imperative characteristics of mass communication, he argues that media convergence enables symbolic forms to transcend time and space when distributed online to a mass audience (Thompson 1999:19). This is particularly evident through YouTube, where ‘instantaneity is one of its primary virtues’ (Hildebrand 2007:49). The music industry today promotes music artists and music videos online as the product is able to transcend landscape boundaries (Thompson 1999:19). Audiences today are constantly in the demands of instant gratification and this is predominantly beneficial for the promotion of online music videos because the message is able to get across on a more immediate scale (Hilderbrand 2007:49; Guiffre 2012). The winner of 2011’s triple j’s hottest 100, Gotye, and their track ‘Somebody That I Use To Know’ are renowned for their user-generated body-painting video that reached more than two million views in the first three weeks it was originally uploaded on YouTube (ABC 2010; Facebook 2012; GotyeMusic 2011). Previously, Australian music was promoted through public service broadcast television (e.g. Countdown) as a way of transporting new music to audiences all over the country (Guiffre 2012). However, with the development of digital media, analogue media is found to distribute content that is restricted and bound to local areas. Now consumers are provided with a broader access and availability to content online (Keith 2012; Hilderbrand 2007). 

 'Within three weeks of its striking, stop-frame, body-painting video being posted on YouTube, the song had received more than two million hits and made it to No.1 on the Hype Machine Twitter chart. Hear it once and you’ll be haunted by it for weeks.' (Facebook, 2012)

Dylan Crowther - 42858518

Discuss the phenomenon of digital media convergence in relation to one of the following: Advertising & New Media or Music Video Online.

The progression towards digital media as an ephemeral and transportable medium in the form of ‘data’ has proved phenomenal with digital media convergence in relation to ‘new media’ effectively allowing for a heightened surge of media globalization, as media is ultimately a medium which transcends spatial, temporal and cultural boundaries, leading to a global homogenization in terms of media. Yet despite such unprecedented neoliberalism and concentration levels of mainstream media ownership, ‘new media’ and the phenomenon of digital media convergence have changed the very way in which consumers react and utilise media. Consumers have effectively become active, with more choice as to what they watch, when and effectively, how it is presented, due to a proliferation of media and the portability of new technology. Therein lies an ironic duality, as the opposing notions of consumer activity and individuality stand in seemingly direct opposition with mass media notions of globalization and neo-liberalism, yet digital media convergence can be seen as a fluid notion, with both elements combining to form what is seen as ‘new media’ and forcing media conglomerates to rethink traditional advertising methods.

In terms of mass media and advertising, the wave of globalized media has led to greater focus on New media and advertising by global media corporations, as convergence has provided for a greater audience and therefore increased capitalisation of its consumers, as both producers and consumers can portray their message across cultural boundaries due to the convergence of technologies such as translators and multi-national search companies, as evidenced by the widespread domination of Google. This new technology and increases in the liberality of media censorship and availability has ultimately allowed for capitalist conglomerates to globalize, with McChesney suggesting that media is the “transmission belt”[1] for capitalist businesses, allowing them to “market their wares all across the globe”, going so far as to suggest that “globalization as we know it could not exist without it”[2]. As Jenkins suggests, “our ties to older forms of social community are breaking down”[3], “our rooting in physical geography is diminishing”[4] and our bonds to family and nation disregarded in lieu of a more globalized mindset, illustrating that ‘new media’ allows for a transcendence of traditional cultural, spatial and temporal boundaries.

(The above video stands as an example of the dislocation of cultural barriers aforementioned.)

Yet this is in a sense problematic, as whilst the phenomenon of media convergence has allowed for increased accessibility and a dislocation of cultural boundaries it has consequently provided for global media corporations to emerge as oligopolistic mediums which present a homogenized viewpoint across the world, posing a threat to the sanctity of the notions of democracy and ‘free speech’ prevalent across the majority of the globe. Jenkins suggests that there is an “alarming concentration of the ownership of mainstream commercial media”[5], with only a small number of multi-national conglomerates controlling the entire entertainment industry. Appadurai suggests that this neo-liberal capitalist surge which rides off the back of ‘new media’ and subsequently alternate forms of advertising utilise language and symbolic hegemonies[6], whilst McChesney details that as global media corporations utilise the phenomenon of advertising and new media to reach the broad audience that is forged by convergence, they do not allow for smaller, more specific culturally minded media corporations to survive amongst the ‘giants’ of global media, as political boundaries are broken and culture superseded in a Neo-liberalist push for financial gain.  

However, therein lies a duality between globalized mass media, and a heightened user activity and consumer choice in the media they take in, due to convergence in digital media. Convergence in digital media has provided for media to effectively become ever-present and seemingly omniscient, with the convergence of internet and journalism allowing for news from anywhere in the globe to be seen anywhere in the globe. Moreover, consumers are able to pick and choose when and where they receive media due to increased portability, such as through the use of programs such as Tivo, enabling consumers to bypass ads and react differently to traditional ‘top-down’ advertisement impositions. Jenkins proposes that ‘knowledge communities’ based on a sense of collective learning are arising, which is dependent upon the production and exchange of knowledge between consumers. Moreover, consumers have not only increased access to media by way of technological convergence, but also a heightened sense of activity and interactivity, ultimately “narrowing the gap between advertisers and customers”[7] . Spurgeon suggests that digitization makes all media “highly searchable”[8], as the locus of control “resides with the end user, not just at system hubs”[9], as digital media convergence has played traditional mediums such as radio, television and the print newspaper literally and figuratively in the ‘palm of their hands’. Consumers can access “true niche content online”[10] leading to a ‘fragmentation’ of traditional media audiences. As such, traditional advertising strategies are forced to evolve alongside the phenomenal rise of new media and digital media convergence.

Digital Media convergence and consequently the rise of new media has led to fundamental shifts in the traditional advertising landscape. Media conglomerates are forced to re-evaluate their ‘top-down’ informational or transformational advertisement principles so as to appeal to a market which chooses whether or not to engage in advertisement. The following has seen a substantial rise in the prevalence of ‘brand concepts’ which aim to engage the consumer, wrapping ads in entertaining shells, making consumers want to seek out the advertisement rather than being presented with it. A notable example of both this change in advertising principles and digital media convergence was the unification of ‘Hollywood’ and advertisement inherent in BMW’s ‘The Hire’campaign, a hugely successful advertisement for BMW housed within a series of 8 short films, directed by notable entertainment directors. Moreover, a sure example of the need for advertising to appeal to consumers newfound activity within the process of media consumption, ‘The Hire’ included four short ‘subplot films’ which upon close inspection by intuitive fans led to a party in Las Vegas in which one of the featured BMW cars was given away.

Hence it can be seen that the digital media revolution has had profound and far-reaching consequences politically, economically and culturally. The very way in which media seeks to appeal to its consumers has changed, with advertising moving beyond traditional top-down representations towards more consumer-interactive and ‘entertaining’ principles. Moreover, digital media has allowed for increased globalization, and arguably, homogenization of mass media. Similarly, the way in which consumers engage with media has changed dramatically, faced with increased choice and liberty. The digital media phenomenon has ultimately changed the way in which both consumers, producers and dispersers of media interact, resulting in the wave of ‘new media’ and a change in the way in which advertising is conducted.

McChesney, Robert W (2001) “Global Media, Neoliberalism and Imperalism” in Monthly Review, March 2001, p6.            

Mazzarella, William. "Culture, Globalization, Mediation." Annual Review of Anthropology 33, no. 1 (2004): 345-67.Thomson, Irene Taviss. "Individualism and Conformity in the 1950s Vs. The 1980s." Sociological Forum 7, no. 3 (1992): 497-516.

Winston, Brian. How are Media Born and Developed? In John Dowling, Ali Mohammadi, Anabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi (eds) ‘Questioningthe Media: A critical Introduction’, London, Sage, 1995

Flew, Terry. New Media : An Introduction. 3 ed.  Oxford: Oxford University press, 2008.

Jenkins, Henry. "The Cultural Logic of Media Convergence." International Journal of Media 7, no. 1 (2004): 33-43.
Galloway, Alexander. "What Is New Media? Ten Years after the Language of New Media." In Criticism, 377-84, 2011.

Manovich, Lev. The Language of New Media.  Massachusetts: MIT Press, Cambridge, 2001.

Selwyn, Neil. "Making Sense of Young People, Education and Digital Technology: The Role of Sociological Theory." Oxford Review of Education 38, no. 1 (2012): 81-96.

[1] McChesney, Robert W (2001) “Global Media, Neoliberalism and Imperalism” in Monthly Review, March 2001, p6.   
[2] Ibid.
[3] Henry Jenkins, "The Cultural Logic of Media Convergence," International Journal of Media 7, no. 1 (2004).
[4] Ibid.
[5] Jenkins, "The Cultural Logic of Media Convergence."
[6] Arjun Appadurai, "Disjuncture and Difference n the Global Cultural Economy," Public Culture 2, no. 2 (1990).
[7]C Spurgeon, "From the 'Long Tail' to 'Madison and Vine'," in Advertising and New media (New York: Routledge, 2008).
[8] Ibid.
[9] Ibid.
[10] Kim Sheehan, "Beyond convergence: Confluence culture and the role of the advertising agency in a changing world," First Monday 14, no. 3 (2009).